Every Day is “Global” at ICU.

Global ICU

Front Line of Education ICU's liberal arts education is aimed at enabling students to study in a broad range of
academic disciplines and discover new perspectives by organically blending knowledge.
ICU offers an education with an international perspective.


Classroom interaction and foreign language learning

I have been carrying out research on language classrooms within the field English language education for over 20 years. I have been especially interested in the impact of instruction that incorporates interaction between students, such as pair work or group work, on English learning. Further, after joining ICU, I have also expanded my research in focus on learning in English-medium content courses consisting of students with varying levels of English proficiency. At ICU, where exchange students and returnee students with native-level English proficiency take courses in English with students who studied in Japan until high school. I have found through experience, that the quality of the studies improved when students were able to learn collaboratively. I plan to continue my research on teaching methods that are effective for learning foreign languages or for learning in a foreign language.

The fear of making mistakes - one barrier to improving English proficiency

English language education as a formal subject of study, which currently starts from junior high school, will begin in elementary school from 2020. According to the new instruction guidelines, students will start coming into contact with English in the third and fourth grades of elementary school and will start to learn reading and writing in the fifth and sixth grades as a subject. Even though there are issues such as a shortage of qualified teachers, I think there are positive effects of opportunities for children to come into contact with English at the elementary school level, when they are brimming with curiosity.

One major challenge for Japanese learners of English is speaking. One of the reasons is the tendency of Japanese learners of English to avoid speaking due to fear of making mistakes. Elementary school children in the third and fourth grades are at an age where they are less afraid to respond to English using language and physical actions and therefore lowering the starting age of English language education may also lower the barrier for speaking. Further, it has the added advantage of nurturing multifaceted thinking as children come in contact with a different culture.

Improving the ability to communicate in real-life contexts

Educators are now recognizing the benchmark for English proficiency to be "what you can DO in English." In the past, listening, speaking, reading and writing abilities were measured separately. However, when learners actually communicate in English listening and speaking as well as reading and writing are all simultaneously necessary for effective interaction. Being able to react and participate in authentic communicative encounters requires the interaction of all four language skills and also the knowledge, intellectual ability and understanding of various social situations and cultures.

For that reason, recently we have started seeing classes that go beyond the traditional conceptualizations of language instruction at the elementary, junior high and high school levels. For example, there are pioneering initiative of classes where English and Social Studies are combined. Students engage with English texts that are related to what they learned in their Social Studies class and then have discussions about the content. They are not just reading and learning the English language sentences in their text books but discuss the content in a way that links learning with other subjects.

In order to use English which is grounded in "content", it is necessary for learners to have an accumulated stock of knowledge to drawn on when they convey ideas, respond to questions, or describe reactions and emotions. For elementary school students who are just embarking on their path to learn and for those who have already started learning, one important strategy is to engage in authentic experiences. Experiences underly students' ability to expressing their own thoughts in their own words when they communicate in English.

Also, the students should be wary of how they use their first language in their day-to-day communication. Students need to move beyond single word or single syllable utterances and need to practice communicating in sentences, even in their first language. Sentences include contextual information that is necessary when communicating with people who do not share the same daily life as children do in elementary school or with family members.

The future is unpredictable. Children need to be prepared to adapt to unexpected situations. Since, English is one tool to learn about the world outside of Japan, I hope students will come in contact with new knowledge through the study of English and expand their world and their way of thinking.


Akiko Fujii, Associate Professor

[Majors: language education]

After graduating from the International Christian University (ICU), Akiko Fujii completed her M.A. at The University of Tokyo, worked as an Instructor in ICU's English language program (then English Language Program [ELP]) and acquired her Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics at Georgetown University. She joined the Education and Language Education Department in 2016.


Ability to reflect on oneself

―――― You mentioned about artificial intelligence (AI) in your lecture* too. Since when have you been interested in AI?  
*ICU Alumni Association Liberal Arts Open Lecture held on November 11, 2017

Morimoto: Since I discussed the issue of "what makes humans uniquely human" with faculty members in humanities.

―――― That's around the time when you published "Ningen ni Koyu na Mono towa Nani ka (What are qualities unique to humans?)" (Sobunsha, 2011), isn't it?

Morimoto: Yes. It contained discussions across a range of fields, from philosophy to theology, literature, music and classics, along with questions raised from perspectives of social and natural sciences. The book was an exemplary sample of what liberal arts is.

―――― I thought AI is a subject of interest in fields such as computer science and information science. Do the humanities take interest in AI as well?

Morimoto: It's only natural that when people study what artificial intelligence is, they arrive at the question of what intelligence is in the first place. I mean the intelligence in the original sense, not artificial ones. This is a question that has always been asked by philosophy, "knowledge about knowledge." Since 3,000 years ago, human beings have asked themselves the question of "What are humans?" both in the East and West.


―――― It sounds like we are an overly self-conscious species.

Morimoto: Exactly. If we humans want to know about ourselves, we need some kind of a "mirror" to reflect ourselves. In ancient times, we compared ourselves with God or with other animals, but now, robots and AI mainly serve as that mirror. As I mentioned in my previous lecture, try searching such key words as "Turing test," "Chinese room," "Mary's room" and "Qualia" on the Web. I'm sure you will understand that AI has much to do with the classic "mind-body problem" since Descartes: the question of how the mind and body relate with each other.

―――― You were explaining the difference between intelligence and intellect in your lecture./p>

Morimoto: In English, AI stands for Artificial Intelligence. Nobody thinks AI stands for Artificial Intellect. Why is that? The word intellect is only used to describe humans. There are "intelligent animals" and "intelligent machines" but no "intellectual animals." Imagine, if there were intellectual animals, that would be like an ape version of Rodin's "The Thinker."

―――― That's a little funny.

Morimoto: So, what makes you think it's funny? You see, being intellectual or intellectuality means that you can direct intelligence to examine yourself. In other words, the ability to reflect on yourself. I think that is the key to humanly intelligence.

―――― Do you mean that AI doesn't have that kind of intelligence?

Morimoto: Yes, that's right.

Difference between AI and humans

―――― Given the dramatic speed of recent developments in AI technology, however, AI with that kind of self-awareness ability may be developed in the near future. Some people say that AI will surpass human ability and reach "singularity" by around 2045.

Morimoto: I don't agree with that. This is not a matter of development or evolution. It's a matter of principle. More precisely, the fact that AI evolves is what limits AI.

―――― I don't understand. What does that mean?

Morimoto: AI will continue to evolve. If there is an ability it lacks, then AI will acquire that ability, one after another. In principle, there are no bounds to the evolution of AI. However, for a being to recognize oneself as "self," there needs to be boundaries to define that "self." In other words, you need to be limited to a certain range to be able to identify yourself as one whole being.

―――― You mean that being limitless is the limit?

Morimoto: Yes. Humans have limits in spatial terms, too. The space that we can occupy is limited to our body. We may extend our body with an artificial arm or leg, but we cannot extend our body limitlessly. Obviously, our lifespan is also limited in temporal terms. No one can live forever. Because we live that limited life, we can recognize ourselves as one consistent being, as oneself.


―――― Yes. If we could live forever, life would seem much more boring.

Morimoto: Life is precious because we are all a limited being. If we became limitless and eternal, I suppose there would be no poetry, music or art. We call this "mono no aware (the sorrow or empathy for transience of things)" in Japan. Perhaps this expression can be replaced with the phrase "memento mori" from Medieval Europe. We appreciate life for what it is because we know we are mortal.

―――― So, AI can mimic art, but to enjoy art based on the understanding of living a limited life is something only humans can do.

Morimoto: Yes. Another interesting difference between AI and humans is that only humans make mistakes.

―――― Computers make errors at times.

Morimoto: Yes. But the point is, do they recognize that they made a mistake? Some AI researchers dismiss this kind of question as a "pseudo problem," but I think it is an important question that bears a key to deepening understanding. Humans get disappointed when they realize that they made a mistake, but one economist said that disappointment is one of the most unique abilities of human beings. As the old saying goes, "Errare humanum est (To err is human)." That's what makes economic activity possible and uniquely human.

Liberal Arts will become even more important in the AI age

―――― Sounding more like liberal arts. Recently, I hear some experts and business managers saying that the more AI evolves, the more we need to learn about not only science and engineering but also art, history, philosophy and religions.

Morimoto: Yes, I've noticed that change in trends, too. ICU has embraced liberal arts education ever since its foundation in 1953. For the first 50 years or so, no one showed interest in such an unfamiliar word. As the century turned, however, recruitment officers of business corporations started to say that universities should provide more liberal arts education to students.

―――― What caused that change?

Morimoto: I suppose the rapid changes of the times and society. In Japan, liberal arts education is often mistaken as education in humanities, but at ICU, we offer many science courses as well, including physics, chemistry, biology mathematics and information science. I believe that students need to acquire comprehensive capabilities to be able to flexibly respond to whatever change that may come. If you only specialize in one narrow field, the knowledge you acquired has the risk of becoming obsolete. I'm looking forward to seeing ICU graduates lead active careers in the future.


Anri Morimoto: Vice President for Academic Affairs

[Major:Philosophy and Religion]

B.A. in college of Liberal Arts, ICU. 1982 M.A. in Tokyo Union Theological Seminary. Ph.D. in Princeton Theological Seminary (Systematic Theology). 1997 Appointed as Associate Professor at ICU's College of Liberal Arts, Division of Humanities. After becoming Professor, he has held his current position since 2012. Some of his recent publications include Han Chiseishugi (Anti-intellectualism), Itan no Jidai (Era of heresy), Shukyo Kokka America no Fushigina Ronri (The strange logics of America as a religious country).


Banks will be IT companies in the near future

With a background of statistics and financial engineering at university, and after gaining hands-on experiences at a financial institution, I now focus on the development of foreign exchange prediction models using artificial intelligence and the study of advanced credit risk management methods. In doing so, I feel almost every day that, now that the innovation of Fintech, which uses information technologies to provide new financial services, is advancing at an accelerating pace, banks are about to undergo major changes in the way they do business or use human resources.

The banking industry is one of the most popular places of work for students to start their career. Is it because of the high salary or the stability, maybe? In addition, the positive image that parents have of banks may affect the thinking of students. Now, I may be exaggerating somewhat, but I would like to explain how you need to change your image of banks a little in relation to Fintech and artificial intelligence. Coming right to the point, banks will be IT companies in the future, or companies whose main business is information technology will be taking up banking functions. In short, the banking industry will be the IT industry. The weight that the word "bank" has will be diluted to a large extent. The entry barrier will be far lower than ever, and the competition tougher than ever. This is not so much a forecast as a matter of course considering the behavior of supermarkets and convenience stores or the appearance of Internet banks. A major transformation is already taking place at banks. Many tasks are computerized, and the accuracy, speed and quality of machine processing far exceeds that of manual processing. Trust in the bankers that handle money will be supported by security systems. Like Alipay in China (the cashless payment service provided by the Alibaba Group ), cashless payment services will be used widely in Japan, too, and most of the services provided by banks will be available on smartphones. The number of branches and ATMs will be reduced substantially. Banks with a branch or ATM at or near every railway station will soon be a thing of the past. The proof is the news that megabanks are planning to reduce their employees by tens of thousands. The banks that used to be synonymous with the word "stability" are now at the stage of major transformation.

Accelerating application of information technology: plusses and minuses

Important business of banks, aside from account management, includes banking and trading. I would like to discuss these in relation to artificial intelligence. Banking is one of the traditional businesses of banks. Banks lend money deposited by depositors to companies and individuals. The difference between the interest received from borrowers and that paid to depositors (margin) is the bank's profit, which makes the business viable. In the current state of ultra-low interest rates, business success depends on how to cut costs to the absolute minimum, how to assess borrowers appropriately to determine good transactions for constructing the best portfolio, and how to set the terms and conditions of the loans in accordance with the risk, particularly the interest rate (pricing). If a bank fails to cut the cost, the interest rate on the loan will naturally be high. Blue-chip companies will then switch the financing bank to one that offers lower interest rates or raise funds directly from the market by floating bond issues. High-cost banks will then be left with a portfolio of loans to borrowers with low credit quality. Considering that all corporate and individual borrowers have to do is to check the interest rate and other terms and conditions of the loans on the Internet, banks appear to be better off having a good loan screening function than having a good sales force. In the field of loan screening , however, the wave of information technology application is appearing in the shape of automated loan screening. What do we the depositors and shareholders expect of banks? The answer is, in addition to accurate credit decisions, transparency and accountability of the decision making process, which is also what the regulatory authorities require. This means that the logic of credit decisions must not be something that only specific bank officers can understand, with leaps of logic and dreamy notions: everyone needs to come up with the same credit decision. If a borrowing company is refused a roll-over or asked to repay the loan in full simply because the policy has changed due to the relocation of the officer in charge of the loan screening or branch manager, the company will most likely not take it well. If all the branches or officers need to make the same decisions, all the banks have to do is to introduce mechanical algorithms. The decisions will be consistent, accurate and efficient for the banks if a machine makes decisions in accordance with the processes designed by human beings*1.

Furthermore, in addition to the traditional screening method, computerization can enable a large volume of account data (transaction information, or big data) to be read to check the financial status, etc. of the company. Such functions are already implemented in the U.S. and are working well*2, and it is more than likely that these functions will be important for loan screening in Japan, too. For this reason, banks are competing very hard to win the main bank status required to obtain a vast quantity of data*3. Loan screening in Japan has often relied almost solely on collateral, but it is destined to change its focus to business viability and cash flows. The vast amount of data that needs to be processed for such loan screening processes cannot possibly be handled manually. The banks must rely on computers in this field as well.

Let us now look at trading. Trading is the business of making money by buying and selling stocks, bonds, currencies, commodities, and derivatives. It is not easy to make money this way. Students often ask me if, by studying financial engineering, they can choose the right stocks to make money or forecast exchange rates in the future by building mathematical formulae. This is not the case at all. In the first place, if a stock whose price is going up can be identified academically, such a method will be known to everyone in an instant, and the very existence of a cheap stock (with a lower market price than the true value) is a paradox*4. Investment banks make an enormous profit because they add a huge margin to the cost of the product (the cost when fully hedged) when they sell it. This is why they can post a large profit at the time of sale without taking any risks. Returning to my main topic, Fintech is increasingly used in trading as well. For example, in high-frequency trading, computers are executing sales and purchases as programmed within a few milliseconds. Computers are just operating as instructed by the architect, including automatic learning. As the transactions are executed in milliseconds, it is far beyond the response speed of human beings to recognize price changes and take actions. In the past, there was a case when a computer went out of control (at the time of the Flash Crash on May 6, 2000, the Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by about 1,000 dollars within a matter of a few minutes). Only computers can stop such an instantaneous abnormality. As the market is a mechanism created by human beings, it may not be necessary to assume many scenarios, compared to when we are dealing with nature. Control by computers is effective only when a condition meets the definition of a "malfunction" within the scope of human knowledge, when the countermeasures kick in as programmed: it has the potential defect that it is vulnerable to unknown events. Market movements in the future cannot be predicted perfectly even when we feed into computers as many patterns of past market movements as possible: most movements may be explained by empirical distribution, but the real threat is when the market moves in a way that is different from past experience, choosing events that computers cannot control. The banks will thus need to transform their business operations, taking into account the limitations and risks of the computers.

What is required of bank officers in the future is flexible thinking without prejudice

Artificial intelligence is being used increasingly as part of Fintech. The artificial intelligence currently used in the financial industry, although seemingly making decisions voluntarily, is nothing more than a faithful machine programmed to act based on rules thought out by human beings. It will, in my view, be some time before we achieve so-called technological singularity when artificial intelligence surpasses human beings. All banks are required to be able to explain to the regulatory authorities the decisions made and decision-making mechanisms, which prevents them from introducing a complicated thinking model that is specific to artificial intelligence and beyond the comprehension of human beings.

Moreover, as economic power plays a central role in determining a country's national strength, Japan will also need to correct the economic disparity within the country, promote work style reform, and transform itself into an equal and productive society. In fact, I am currently studying how AI and IT can contribute to achieving this goal. We are now entering an age in which AI and IT will have influence on not only economy but also on politics and international relations. Japan too must urgently work on cultivating specialists who can apply AI to various fields such as environmental problems and denuclearization.

In the long run, however, the time will come when the banks let artificial intelligence make a much wider range of decisions. For the banking industry, which is very likely to undergo a paradigm shift of this nature, those that have studied a wide range of academic disciplines at a liberal arts college like ICU with a global viewpoint and free thinking will be able to make a significant contribution. I believe that only those who are not tied to existing concepts, who can read today's trends and can think freely can chart the new direction of banks and navigate them through. In this sense, it is probably true to say that the future banking industry will be very challenging and full of rewarding tasks.

*1 There are methods called scoring models, of which the most well known is Altman's Z-score. Although at present this method is positioned as ancillary to loan screening by a bank officer, it will have an increasingly important role in the future. Computers do not waste time in determining whether the borrower is a "close watch" customer or "likely to go bankrupt" customer. The benefit of the bankruptcy prediction model is substantial as it derives objective indicators from financial and other data, based on which the bank officer makes decisions efficiently.

*2 In the United States, an individual is given a FICO score based on information of past transactions, and the interest rate for the risk category indicated by the score is applied to the loan. If the FICO score is 660 or below, the loan to such an individual is classified as subprime.

*3 At the World Economic Forum held in January 2011, participants stated that "personal data is the new oil of the Internet and the new currency of the digital world," or "personal data will be the new 'oil' - a valuable resource of the 21st century." (See here.)

*4 Even if a stock is mispriced with discrepancies from the fundamentals, if it is so priced as a result of the market transactions, that price is in fact the right one. Although there are analysts analyzing the likelihood of price movements in the future, if they are 100% sure of the forecasts, it will be much more efficient for them to trade based on the analysis results. In pricing based on financial engineering, a probability measure that makes the future expected return equivalent to the risk-free rate is used for pricing. In this sense, the expected return of all financial products is equivalent to the risk-free rate, meaning that, whatever product you may buy, your return will not be above the risk-free rate.


Takuya Kaneko, Associate Professor

[Majors: Business, Development Studies]

After graduating Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Associate Professor Kaneko earned master's and doctor's degrees in Engineering at Tokyo Institute of Technology. After working at a global investment bank, he took up his current position in April 2013.

Power balance in East Asia and China's thoughts and actions

Understanding China's perspective in international relations

My visit to Japan and China in the 1990's motivated me to study East Asian politics, with a particular focus on Japan-China relations. Back then, Japan had achieved tremendous economic development in the midst of the bubble economy, whereas China was still on its way to development as the Communist Party dominated the country with even greater power today. How could the situation of these two neighboring countries differ so widely? Both countries have long and fascinating histories and cultures, why can't they enjoy a friendly relationship with each other? I felt a strong urge to understand the background underlying these questions, and that's what made me step into a career as a researcher.

Currently, I visit China 5 to 6 times a year and interview policy makers, national security experts and researchers to study and understand international relations including Japan-China relations and Japan-China-US relations from China's perspective. International relations are usually discussed based on Western-world logics and approaches, but perhaps China, with its wealth of history and traditions, may have its own logics for understanding international relations. I wish to bring clarity to this puzzle s and apply the knowledge to analyze China's diplomatic policy toward Japan, Europe and the U.S., so as to find a clue for solving the numerous problems the international community is faced with.

I chose to base myself in Japan for my research on Japan-China relations to ensure I had the necessary degree of freedom to do research on such a sensitive issue. Moreover, ICU is a liberal arts college that supports research in history and international relations based on critical thinking skills core to the liberal arts teaching philosophy. Since I am neither a Japanese nor Chinese, ICU's teaching and reach philosophy offers an ideal environment for me. I am pursuing my research here while collaborating with the other faculty members who specialize in international relations.

The impact of U.S.-China relations on the international system

As we know, China's emergence is the key topic essential to understanding the current situation of East Asia. During the 1980s to 90s, the attention of the world's mass media was attracted to Japan's booming bubble economy. Now, China is the focus of most foreign media coverage on Asia-related topics. Stories reported about Japan are mainly about eccentric topics such as "herbivore men" and overworking problems. There is also coverage on such topics as revision to the Constitution, increase of military budgets, and gender disparities, mostly reported in a critical tone rather than with nuanced and impartial analysis. The more the Chinese economy advances, the less visible Japan's presence becomes in the world.

The relation between the two major powers of China and the U.S. also has a great impact on not only East Asia but on the global situation. The difference between China's policy toward Japan and the U.S. stems from the experience of war. While China and the U.S. have had ideological conflicts, the two countries have never experienced any armed conflicts with each other except in the Korean War. This means that they are only economic rivals. However, a sad history resulting from two actual wars lies between Japan and China, making the problem much more complex than can be solved in the field of economy alone.

Since the 1970s, China and the U.S. have built close relations in the fields of economy, culture and politics. However, it is only a matter of time until China, which is now the second-largest economy in the world, overtakes the U.S. As a matter of fact, the U.S.-China relations are already deteriorating due to China's remarkable economic development, ideological differences, security issues and real and perceived differences. If China continues to grow into an even greater power, deterioration of the U.S.-China relations may be accelerated, posing adverse impact on other countries as well. China's militarization of the South China Sea has recently been causing much controversy and concern. China's military build-up against the backdrop of its growing economy is also a trend that needs to be watched closely.

What Japan should do to make contributions in the international community

Nuclear threat from North Korea is another issue attracting global concern regarding the security of East Asia. Although a historical meeting took place between U.S. President Trump and Kim Jong Un, Leader of the Workers' Party of Korea, in May 2018, it would be difficult to realize denuclearization of North Korea unless their overly militarized economy is restructured into a more liberalized economy. If free economy could change the citizens' way of thinking, then we may be able to find a path toward solution. What can Japan do to forge our way in that direction? Perhaps, offering economic support on the condition that North Korea makes progress toward denuclearization may be one option. At any rate, it would require tenacious efforts one step at a time toward the goal, with a long-term perspective of 10 to 20 years and through collaboration with neighboring countries under the U.S.-Japan alliance.

As a member of Asia and the global community, Japan will need to further strengthen the U.S.-Japan alliance and at the same time enhance relationships with other countries in East Asia and Europe. Since Japan is a smaller nation compared to the U.S. or China, it needs to deepen relations with other countries and make steady contributions in the global community to demonstrate its strength.

Moreover, as economic power plays a central role in determining a country's national strength, Japan will also need to correct the economic disparity within the country, promote work style reform, and transform itself into an equal and productive society. In fact, I am currently studying how AI and IT can contribute to achieving this goal. We are now entering an age in which AI and IT will have influence on not only economy but also on politics and international relations. Japan too must urgently work on cultivating specialists who can apply AI to various fields such as environmental problems and denuclearization.


Stephen R. Nagy, Senior Associate Professor

[Majors: Public Policy, International Relations, Politics and Asian Studies]

After graduating from University of Calgary in Canada, Stephen attended Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University and obtained his M.A. and Ph.D. there. After working as Assistant Professor, Department of Japanese Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, he was appointed to his current position at ICU in September 2014. He was appointed a Distinguished Fellow of Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada (APF Canada) since December 2017, a Fellow of Canadian Global Affairs Institute in January 2018, and a Fellow of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in September 2018.

Japanese Literature Religion Society

Global x Japanese Literature

Theme: Analyzing Japanese views on religion from literature

Two life-changing encounters that brought me into the world of Japanese literature.

I was born in the UK, and it was really a chance encounter that sparked my interest in Japan. It all began about one week before my interview to enter university when a friend and I stopped by a bar and I happened to get absorbed in a conversation with a Japanese person there.* It was just a casual 30-minute conversation, but to me, whose knowledge of Japan at the time was limited to "Fujiyama" and "samurai," hearing about a distant land for the first time piqued my interest in a way I cannot put into words. So, although I had planned to study French and German at university, I quickly switched to Japanese Studies.

From that point on, I immersed myself in all things Japanese, and when I was trying to decide on a theme for my doctoral thesis, something caught my eye in a list of Japanese authors I happened to come across: ten of the 20 authors on the list were connected, in one way or another, with Christianity. With less than 1% of Japanese adhering to Christianity in a country that overwhelmingly identifies with Buddhism and Shinto, I remember being very surprised that half of these authors were interested in Christianity. I focused primarily on four of those authors, and today I analyze and research the works of one of them in particular, Shusaku Endo.

* In the UK, it is legal to drink alcohol at 18.

Shusaku Endo's thoughts on religion in his works

What is distinctive about my research is that, rather than evaluating works from a literary perspective, I focus more on an examination of works as reflecting the social conditions of the time. In particular, one of my main focuses has been to look at how an author's faith is reflected in his or her works.

Shusaku Endo became a Christian due to his mother's influence, but, from the outset, he had a relatively tolerant religious outlook. That is why he actively encouraged religious scholars to engage in interfaith dialogue. This outlook is clearly expressed in one of his most well-known works, Deep River. The book is about a group of six Japanese people with different backgrounds who journey together to the Ganges River in India. Each one embarks on the trip for different reasons, but, during the course of their respective journeys, each succeeds in overcoming personal difficulties and ends up undergoing a spiritual experience that may be seen as a form of enlightenment. The story can be seen as hinting at the possibilities for inter-religious dialogue suggesting that, even though the various world religions may differ superficially, the quest for faith itself is shared.

On the other hand, Endo has stated that he felt that he faced a dilemma between two aspects of his identity--that of being Japanese and of being Christian. Indeed, he told me once that he tried several times to renounce the Christian way of life (which had been chosen for him by his mother).

You can catch glimpses of that dilemma in The Girl I Left Behind, the story of Mitsu, a young woman from the countryside who comes to Tokyo. There she meets and falls for a man named Yoshioka; but, having been mistakenly diagnosed with leprosy, she ends up devoting her life to caring for her new friends in the hospital - before losing her life in an accident. It is written in the style of notes written by Yoshioka who is consumed with remorse and guilt upon learning of her death.

Endo himself has said that the book could also be called "The Jesus I Left Behind." He stated in several lectures that the state of mind of Yoshioka, who chooses to leave Mitsu for another woman, is analogous to his own wavering in his Christian faith. Endo never did abandon the teachings of Jesus, but the book vividly illustrates how the conflict he sensed between his Christian faith and his ethnic identity as Japanese never left him.

Interdisciplinary study and the importance of encountering diverse cultures

ICU advocates liberal arts and, by and large, the faculty is engaged in interdisciplinary research. I am no exception: using Japanese literature with a particular focus on Shusaku Endo, I examine the religious views and social conditions that underpin various works of literature. Taking a comprehensive view of things in this way is fascinating to me.

In my native UK, most universities require you to choose your major when you first enter, as do many Japanese universities. As such, I plunged into the world of Japanese Studies at 18 following that life-changing encounter. Seeing that I have remained on that same path for my entire career, I think it turned out to be the right choice; but it seems to me that deciding one's field of specialization in one's teens is too young. I discovered liberal arts in Japan and was impressed by its merits. ICU provides a wonderful environment where students first gain knowledge in a wide range of fields and from there are able to go into more depth in their chosen field of specialization. And as multilingual communication is an integral part of life here, students are able to improve their ability to interact with a diverse range of cultures. As the concept of national borders continues to fade in modern society, I believe that those with bicultural or multicultural understanding will be highly sought after in the global arena.

If you want to experience a diverse range of cultures, come study at ICU.


Prof. Mark Williams

Vice President for International Academic Exchange (Specialization: Japanese literature)

Mark Williams got his start in Japanese Studies at the University of Oxford, and went on to graduate school at the University of California to continue research in East Asian and Japanese Studies. After completing his doctoral program in 1991, he worked in education and research in the field of Japanese Studies at universities around the world. Williams has held his current position since September 2017.
Note: As the Vice President for International Academic Exchange, Williams does not teach classes.

Chemistry, Environment, Economic Development

Global x Chemistry and Environmental Studies

Theme: Seeking a balance between the environment and the economy with the power of chemistry

I want to support environmentally friendly economic activities with a perspective that encompasses the entire world.

My area of specialization within chemistry is air pollution, and I am currently researching causative agents of photochemical oxidants--nitrogen oxides and reactive nitrogen oxides in particular. Molecular nitrogen and molecular oxygen themselves are not highly reactive, but we have learned that when the air is heated by power plants and automobile engines, their chemical bonds rearrange to form nitrogen oxide.

Looking at the environment in Japan, the air has become much cleaner compared to 20 or 30 years ago. However, the air that drifts over from the Asian mainland clearly exhibits the effects of various kinds of development.

Developed countries such as Japan which developed without being restricted by major regulations cannot halt the progress of developing countries for the reason that they are negatively impacting the environment. Instead of trying to make them stop their economic activities, what we need to do is demonstrate how they can develop and advance their economies in a more environmentally friendly way through efforts such as providing technology, while protecting industry in our own country. Atmospheric scientists conduct research day after day with the hope that their scientifically based proposals--such as showing what measures would be more effective and suggesting regulations that are limited to a certain time--will contribute to deciding international policy.

Working with researchers around the globe -- the most fascinating part of research often lies at the "borders"

When conducting research, there are many opportunities to interact with researchers in other countries, such as international conferences. The data we can obtain varies greatly depending on conditions such as climate, how a city was developed, population density, and the lifestyle of the residents. So when we are not able to go and take measurements in another country ourselves, we use data gathered from the researchers in that country.

And this does not only apply to joint research with other countries--no research can be conducted alone. There are around 1,000 different types of substances in the atmosphere, so it is impossible for me to analyze every substance that nitrogen oxides react to. Usually researchers specializing in different substances come together, and conduct joint research. A major fieldwork project might consist of 10 to 20 groups researching together.

In recent years, the word "interdisciplinary" has gained widespread use in the fields of education and research. In 2016, I joined rice cultivation experts in a study* on rice paddies which earned an award from the Japan Society for Atmospheric Environment. From the experts I gathered information on topics such as water management methods and the relationship between nutrients and growth. To me, producing new discoveries in collaboration with researchers from different fields is one of the most thrilling parts of research activities.

*Measurements of Nitrous Acid (HONO) Direct Emission from Rice Paddy Soil and Its Contribution to Atmospheric HONO Concentration
Referenced article:https://www.icu.ac.jp/news/20160630.html

I want students to discover what interests them through experiencing and studying a wide range of fields.

Liberal arts, one of the main focuses of ICU, is truly the embodiment of interdisciplinary study. Before deciding your major in your second year, you will be able to experience a wide variety of academic fields--which is ideal for people whose interests go in many different directions when they graduate high school.

About 90% of the students taking the general education course I teach, "The Chemical Basis of Nature," are humanities majors. When they enter the workforce, it would be a waste if they got lost whenever someone brought up something chemistry related on the job when working in product development or legislation for example. I conduct lessons using familiar topics to peek their interest with the hope that they will be able to understand the subject when it comes up on the job.

In order to provide students with more meaningful classes, instructors must also continue to grow and dedicate themselves to studying on a day-to-day basis. This summer I participated in two workshops on teaching methods, which are part of the Top Global University Project. One of the workshops taught active learning techniques, which I immediately incorporated into my classes. The response from students has been great. I hope that through active learning, they will gain something that will help them in their future endeavors, if even but a little.*

The other was on teaching classes in English.** Because students' proficiency levels in English differ, when giving lessons in English you need to proceed while gauging how much they understand. One method I have often used to gauge understanding is doing group work, but the down side to this has been that the lessons progress slower than that of a lecture format. In the workshop I learned several techniques to resolve this problem, and plan to make use of them in future classes.

As a university open to the world, ICU's faculty and students come from diverse backgrounds. We have created an environment both in and outside the classroom that will broaden your horizons, so I encourage students to take on a variety of challenges, discover what they like, and find their own path.

* Science Pedagogy Workshop hosted by Global Liberal Arts Alliance
**Oxford EMI Association English Medium Instruction Summer Course


Chika Minejima, Associate Professor

(Majors: Chemistry and environmental studies)

After completing her master's program at Tohoku University, Chika Minejima obtained a doctorate at the University of California, Berkeley in 2008. She continued researching at research institutes and universities after returning to Japan, and joined the faculty of ICU in 2014. Since 2016 she has served as the major advisor for the chemistry major.

Demography, Cultural anthropology, Area studies, Gender and sexuality studies

Global x Demography

Theme: Understanding how people in a country live from population problems

Changing social conditions, and unchanging values

My area of specialization is cultural anthropology. In particular, I research population problems of countries. I started this research when I was studying abroad in the US after graduating from university in Japan. I found out about the discipline of demography from a professor I was studying under. The declining birthrate and increasing aged population has been an issue in Japan for some time, but demography actually involves a wide range of disciplines. It is a truly interdisciplinary field that includes economics, statistics, and even fields like biology and geography. And it not only focuses on a macro perspective, but also explores how the overall population structure of a nation interrelates with the lives of people in the communities.

The first region I researched was Thailand, where I focused on how demographics and the make-up of families relate to each other. Since the 1990s Thailand's declining Total Fertility Rate (TFR) * has reached the replacement level**, which has brought about the problems of an aging population. In the course of my research I found that one of the main factors behind the low TFR was Thailand's unique views and values. Since Thailand's pension system is still developing, it is common for children to take care of their parents, and it is often the youngest female child that remains at home and lives with them. The reason behind this is that because Thai people are traditionally Buddhist and believe in reincarnation, many think that by accumulating a large amount of virtue in this life, they will be reincarnated into a person of higher status in the next. There is a tradition in the country in which men become ordained as monks for a short period of time as a rite of passage to adulthood. It is believed that by dedicating themselves to spiritual practice they can accumulate virtue. However, women cannot become ordained. By researching the lives of the local people, I found that the idea persists that women take care of their parents and pay them back for raising them as a way to accumulate virtue. This showed that one of the reasons for the decline in TFR was that the traditional Thai view results in women remaining with their parents, thus increasing the number of women who do not marry even if they are dating someone.

Even when social conditions change, there are aspects of people's lives that do not. I think one of the most interesting parts of cultural anthropology is investigating the values and views ingrained in communities in the course of research.

* Total Fertility Rate (TFR): The estimated number of children born per woman in her lifetime, calculated by adding the fertility rate for each single-year age group of women 15 to 49 years old.
** Replacement level (fertility): The amount of fertility needed to keep the population the same as the previous generation over the long term. The replacement level in Japan in 2015 was 2.07.

The uniquely Japanese form of happiness behind its low fertility rate

Currently I am examining Japan's declining birthrate and increasing aged population. Biologically, the appropriate childbearing age for women is nearly the same worldwide. And the biological ability of Japanese women to become pregnant is not lower than those in other countries. Then, why is the fertility rate lower? Many argue from an economic perspective, pointing out factors such as the cost of raising a child, but I do not think that that is the only reason.

I focused on the frequency of sexual relations of Japanese married couples. According to data from the Nihon University Population Research Institute, this frequency is clearly lower than other countries. According to its estimation of fecundity (i.e., the ability to become pregnant), in order to become pregnant within one year, the estimated frequency of sexual intercourse is about once per week. However, this frequency is not reached among many Japanese married couples, giving rise to the impression in other countries that Japanese marriages are "loveless." When research on this phenomenon was presented abroad, as you can see from the foreign newspaper article entitled "Marriage without bliss," people outside Japan seem to have interpreted the Japanese marriages as such.

But of course most Japanese couples do not feel they are in a "marriage without bliss." In a group interview I conducted, almost everyone responded that they felt very close as a family. I found, however, there are differences between Japan and other countries in the concept and expression of intimacy. In the West physical relations are emphasized, while in Japan there is a strong tendency to focus on emotional connections as expressed in responses such as "When I don't feel uncomfortable even when we are in the same room and not speaking" or "When I can talk about negative subjects I can't tell anyone else."

Research that further stimulates intellectual curiosity. Imagination is the driving force to take on challenges.

So far I have only done a small-scale interview survey on expressions of intimacy, but I plan to expand the scope of the survey in the future. Researchers from other countries have expressed interest in the survey, so I hope to expand the scope to the US and to Thailand's neighboring country of Laos. If I can gather and compare information from three countries--Japan, Laos, and the US--I believe it will provide very interesting data.

Of course, it may reveal unexpected results. But even so, I would enjoy engaging in research. When I started demography, I was not thinking about doing surveys on how intimacy is expressed. I arrived at this path as a result of moving forward and imagining, but not knowing, what the answer might be.

In the same way, I want students to have intellectual curiosity and value imagination in their studies. For example, the "hypothesis" which you formulate for an experiment is what you would call "imagination" in everyday language. I want students to cultivate their imagination by engaging in dialogue with many people and accumulating a variety of experiences. Of course, the more challenges you take on the more mistakes you will make, but that is also essential for growth. The broader your experiences, the more realistic your hypotheses will be: there is nothing wasted in life. Look at everything as an opportunity for growth, and continue taking on new challenges.


Yoshie Moriki, Senior Associate Professor

(Majors: Anthropology, gender and sexuality studies, and Asian studies)

After graduating from Tokyo Woman's Christian University, Yoshie Moriki obtained master's and doctorate degrees in anthropology and demography from Pennsylvania State University. In 2007 she joined the Nihon University Population Research Institute where she worked for two years, and in April 2009 she joined the faculty of ICU.

History, International relations, Literature

Global, History and Japanese History

Theme: East Asian history from a Western perspective

The first time I heard the language, I was drawn to its captivating sound.

When I was in elementary school in Hungary, where I was born, I saw Shogun, the miniseries based on the book by James Clavell. It was this that sparked my interest in Japan. But what fascinated me most was the Japanese language. It was the first time I heard Japanese, and I remember being gradually drawn to the sound of the language.

It wasn't until entering university that my interest in Japan turned into research. I started with language, and then expanded the scope of my studies to the history and literature of Asia. During the course of my studies at university, my interest changed from linguistics to history. I realized that the discipline of history is more than just tracing back the data; it is a very humane discipline that attempts to understand the state of mind of the people at the time. From that point on, rather than simply analyzing historical documents, I have engaged in research with the hope of gaining insight into the personalities, states of mind, and interpersonal relationships of the people who appear in the documents. That is why I also look through works of literature of the time--to explore people's state of mind. And sometimes I conduct field work, such as tracing the actual route written in travel journals to investigate the historical evidence about the period and people I am researching. This work is very meaningful--walking through the area I often notice things I would not have seen looking only at the documents, and find new evidence.

An ever-growing spirit of inquiry for the history of other countries

Currently I am researching the history of foreign relations in East Asia in the 15th-17th centuries with a focus on Japan. Specifically, I focus on how Sino-Japanese relations developed in the Muromachi period, and how the social and economic development in the transitional period from the medieval to the early modern era impacted Japan's relations with other countries. While reading various sources, about ten years ago, I came across a collection of historical documents called Nyuminki, a collection of diaries and documents written by Japanese people who went to China during the Ming period.

I originally intended to research the Nara and Heian periods, but unfortunately there was already a huge amount of research on the topic. However, Japanese researchers have just begun to study the Nyuminki, so I found it very interesting. Since then I have been analyzing the Nyuminki and investigating the states of mind of the people who traveled from Japan to China, and the impact the Asian mainland had on the whole of Japan.

Today I focus on China, Japan, and East Asia, but in the future I would like to expand the scope to research how the flow of people from Europe has altered the international environment of East Asia. My argument will mainly address how European culture and systems have affected the relationship between Japan and China. Some argue that Western powers have had a dramatic impact on East Asia, while others say that the effect has been minor due to the unique culture that has been established in East Asia--I want to try to understand the truth.

I want students not only acquire knowledge of history, but also the ability to gain in-depth understanding and assert their views.

As a university that provides liberal arts education, ICU has many students who enter before deciding their area of specialization, and many of the students taking my classes are not history majors. Expanding your knowledge and studying a variety of subjects will enable you to broaden your horizons.

However, it would be unfortunate if that was where it ended. I want students to study a wide range of subjects while constantly thinking about what they will eventually focus on to write their thesis. The scope of studies at ICU is more than just broad. By studying under a professor in a specific field of specialization, you can gain a more in-depth understanding of the field. Don't just drag your feet and devote yourself to learning about diverse array of subjects. It is important to narrow your focus at some point during your four years here.

In my classes I instill in students that they should search all sorts of materials, not just a part of them, and assert their own opinions. History in particular is a discipline in which you verify facts that already occurred. It is not about making up stories based on your own personal interpretation. I want students to try to come up with their own arguments based on carefully reading and understanding multiple sources. This is why a liberal arts education is important: It enables you to not only analyze historical documents, but also examine them considering things such as the lives of the people and social climate at the time. I want students to develop the skills to correlate different pieces of information, and not only acquire knowledge, but also the ability to gain an in-depth understanding and assert their opinions--skills which are fundamental for engaging in discussion.


Olah Csaba, Senior Associate Professor

(Majors: History and Japan studies)

After obtaining a master's in Chinese studies and Japanese studies in Hungary where he was born, Olah Csaba moved to Germany to study Chinese studies at Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, where he obtained his doctorate. In 2007 he went to study abroad at the University of Tokyo, and in 2014 obtained a doctorate in Japanese history. While at the University of Tokyo he served as a researcher under the JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowship for Foreign Researchers program, and has been at his current position since September 2012.