Sachiko Kusukawa was educated in Germany and Japan. She then enrolled in what was then the Division of Humanities of the College of Liberal Arts of International Christian University and majored in philosophy. Under the guidance of Professor Atsushi Tanaka (currently professor emeritus of ICU), Kusukawa wrote her senior thesis on the conception of nature of Leibniz and Newton and obtained a bachelor's degree in March 1986.
After graduating from ICU, she entered Trinity College, where she obtained her MPhil and PhD in history of science. After a research fellowship at Christ's College, Cambridge, she joined Trinity College, Cambridge, as a teaching fellow in History and Philosophy of Science in 1997. She has held visiting positions at the Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton, Ludwig-Maximilian University at Munich, the Max-Planck Institute for History of Science in Berlin, and the University of Tokyo. In 2014, she was awarded the Pfizer Prize in History of Science for her book, Picturing the book of nature: image, text, and argument in sixteenth-century human anatomy and medical botany, Chicago 2012. She was Tutor between 2004 and 2014. Since 2015, she is Honorary Professor in History of Science at the University of Cambridge.